Scientific Name: Panthera pardus
Except for their horns, buffalo look like heavily built cattle. Shoulder height males 1,45m, females 1,4m; weight males 625kg, females 530kg. Males have larger heads, thicker necks and heavier horns than females, and in old bulls the bosses join across the head. Needs plentiful grass, shade and water. Gestation 330 – 346 days. Single young are born at any time of the year, nearly all in summer. Calves are weaned at 5 – 15 months, and associate with their mother for at least 2 years. Grazes for 8 – 10 hours a day; more able than others grazers to push in amongst bushes to reach grasses. Sensitive to heat, and tends to feed in the evening, at night and in the morning when it is cool. Drinks at least once a day, and spends the hottest part of the day in shade, ruminating. Wallowing in mud and water relives heat stress and has social significance; bulls wallow more than females and subadults.